Features of a genre
The talk on the today show featuring Karl Stefanovic and Lisa Wilkinson, addressed the topic of melanoma in men. According to Tolson, (1991) he argues that the three main elements of a chat based program are wit and humour, personal and the transgression of underlies talk.
At times the discussion appeared quite controversial and unscripted as the chat in general came across as light-hearted banter. To my understanding although the hosts and the receiver were tackling the issue of cancer, the use of wit and humor assist to create a sense of community amongst the listeners. This is evident with the discussion of men growing beards and even women. The idea of men using their beards to create awareness for melanoma is topic that subverts from our cultural norm. Towards the end we are observant to Karl laughing in hysterics as Lisa makes a witty remark. Thus this further reinforces Tolsons arguments of wit, humor and personal. Lastly unscripted as the chat appeared, their chemistry as hosts works quite effectively on television.
Tolson, A 1991, ‘Televised chat and the synthetic personality’,in Broadcast Talk, ed P. Scannell, Sage Publications, London.
Piece to Camera practice
Video Link: https://vimeo.com/164860378
This activity was quite challenging, as it was found doing a PTC requires good memory, confidence and a lot practice, practice, practice. Chandler (2016) discusses that when the subject, actor and setting occupy roughly equal areas in the frame it is known as a mid shot. This auto visual leaves space for hand gestures to be seen. I had decided to do this as I felt it was important to challenge myself. Brooker (2010) ‘how to report the news’ is very informative on hand gestures and camera angles. Notably he points out that journalists use hand gestures to interrupt every sentence. It wasn’t easy finding a way to balance talking and hand movement at the same time. However I felt it was good practice which I come out with learning alot.
BBC. (2010). Charlie Brooker’s How to Report the News – Newswipe – BBC Four. [Online Video]. 5 February 2010. Available from: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=aHun58mz3vI. [Accessed: 28 April 2016].
Daniel Chandle. 2016. The ‘Grammar’ of Television and Film. [ONLINE] Available at: http://visual-memory.co.uk/daniel/Documents/short/gramtv.html. [Accessed 28 April 2016].
From Text to Talk
Clayman aims to discuss what makes a question quotable and the impact these partake. A first key point Clayman discusses is that observations and accounts from valid established sources are gathered in large measure. Using the theory work of quoted questions in the required speech report if carried out correctly, will have major significance for what audience members may ultimately make of the views and policies that the speaker is attempting to express.
News writer’s language choices can have local documentary rather than exogenous ideological elements. these such choices are also analyzed and interpreted by audience members. The meaning of verbal, gestural, and other communicative displays are a well-established principle that relies upon the context in which they are used.
The structure of interactionally generated source quotations
Clayman confers the structure of interactionally generated source quotations. Precise paraphrased statements from a variety of sources are regularly evident in Newspaper and television stories. The way the speech is reported may not contain statements from a variety of sources but it will make use of precise paraphrased sentences. Clayman goes on to state that for incorporating interactionally generated statements into stories reporters have two options. The first the reporter may use and exclude single statement quotes from continuing interaction in which the statement was first produced. However, there is also the choice of including aspects of the interactional context of source statements.
Clayman points out that Atkinson (1984) discusses that the speakers statement, reference to audience’s response, quotations from interviews and press conferences were found to have frequent coverage in newspaper and television. This can be used in the way the speech is reported by using an interviewee’s statement together with a question that provokes or follows it. Rather than twisting or taking statements out of context Clayman points out. The speech may be reported in a way to deliver a more complete picture of what the speaker said, by recalling the context of the talk.
Clayman uses conversation analysis as a significant resource for analyzing quotation sentences. The following is some key point examples of conversation analysis Clayman uses to break down the structure of quotation sentences in newspaper accounts of reporter-source interaction.
Many of these quotation sequences display the source to be in some way resisting a line of questioning. This can be declining to answer the questions, evading what is seeks or has been written in a way that shows the speaker rejecting proposes. Incorporating the use quotation sentences that have been resisted into the way the speech will be reported; will reflect the type of reporter and the tough questions and their ability to pursue pervasive answers.
Some functions of quoted questions
- Interviews and press conferences are based around largely of questions and answers assigned to reporters and the reporters sources, as a form of talk. Newspaper accounts Clayman discusses usually quote answers or their components without the question that provokes it.
- What is being said or meant by the source can be simplified as summarizing or paraphrasing statements. An initial paraphrase serves to clarify the precise quotation that follows.
- Paraphrased questions serves a variety of more specialized communicative functions that can be difficult to perform. To outline adjoining statements as actions formed in interaction with others, questions are distinctive in their power.
- A basic job questions perform is to display an external motivation for the sources statement. Carrying this out alters the extent to which a statement can be heard to reflect the sources own interests and motivations.
- When the source is pushed to admit contrary to his or her preferences the statement is portrayed as having been resisted. This can result in a three-part statement (statement + question + answer)
- Quoted questions make statements recognizable as answers, which they are provoked rather than volunteered. Incorporating the preceding question in news writing allows the option of noting whether the source replied quickly or after some hesitation.
- Clayman points out the terms preferred and dis preferred, as they differentiate in manner. Examples of this are invitation sequences, acceptances that are generally produced in a preferred format. Therefore when an acceptance is delayed it appears and conveys the impression that the party would rather decline.
- When a questions is quoted in newspapers, the following statement becomes identified as an answer but as an answer that confirms or rejects a reporters proposal, this is known as a confirmatory response.
- A confirmed interrogative proposal is supportive in its nature and its preservation in print purposes to display the friendliness of the encounter.
- Clayman confers that non-answer in news writing shows various ways that a source did not answer. This method generally involves some reference to the following question. A news writer may use the words “refused” or “declined”.
- Rather than state that no answer was given, writer may follow the question with a quote of whatever response it did receive.
- Using a non verbal action such as a smile can be identified as a non answer. Preceding a question it is important a non answering gesture of a smile is made visible.
- It can be indicated by news writers that less than a complete answer was evident, as the source provided some information. For example the speaker’s least answer is quoited after which it is noted “he refused to amplify”