Final blog submission (Reflecting)

To my understanding some of the most useful activities that I the most benefit from, were the ones that required myself to be more hands on. These were the news readings and video recording exercises that were mandatory to read aloud. It was this type of learning that in fact encouraged myself to gain a better understanding of speaking professionally. According to Russell (2009) Learning is movement, the sensation of position, movement, tensions and so forth received through the body. Without movement there can be no expression or learning.

The exercises that required myself to speak aloud a news script or use hand gestures whilst doing a piece to camera, ultimately were very valuable exercises as challenging as they were. Another activity I wish to identify as useful to my learning is week fours activity watching the movie “In a world”. In particular this movie, gave informative information on how people use their voice. From using performance voice, to warm ups or their diet this movie is very insightful on the techniques used for voice over. The last activity I’d like to refer to is no activity in particular but the every video that has been researched and provided throughout the terms activities. These are very insightful to learning and gaining a better idea of speech and script in general. To my understanding each week’s reading provides a video after each topic of discussion. I found that reading and then viewing what was just read, gave myself a more in-depth understanding of the courses theory work. Not only understanding course theory but the provided videos really assisted in attempting workbook and portfolio activities. While I cannot name every single provided video a prime example is week sevens discussion of piece to camera, where Charlie brokers how to report the news is a suggested a video to view. This video was extremely helpful in not only attempting to perform a piece to camera but again understanding the world of voice. Another example I will refer to is week fours study guide where the use of performance is discussed through posture gesture resonance and so on. After that weeks discussion a concluded video of how to have a deep voice is provided to watch. After reading the study guide and then being given a video to watch gave myself a better a better understanding fundamentally of whats expected and how to use performance voice.

At this stage of the course I do believe my knowledge of speaking and script writing has improved. As I had previously identified the activities beneficial to my learning; this is the main reason why. However when it comes to using my voice in news reporting I still believe there is more room for improvement. This is because it is not an easy task, for myself to achieve over a few weeks as it will take me some time to feel completely confident and having a perfectly presented voice. This course has helped me identity and understand key learning skills in having a professional voice. It is evident that having a professional voice is a necessary requirement in all aspects of career opportunity.

Using a blog as a place to carry out the activities has been quite enjoyable. I found it very appealing being able to create and design my own blog in its own distinctive style. In terms of the blogging journey this has been a useful tool as a place to discuss and display video and voice recordings. The blog is most useful for placing URL videos that provide assistance for the reader to further comprehend what was written. It is also useful for using videos not as a tool for understanding but as a resource to provide reference to what was written.

In terms of the final assessment piece I have some level of confidence in tackling this piece. However there is still some concern I have that will be overcome with more research and review of activities and weekly readings.  Research about the basics of state government will be done to retain information that I had learnt long ago. I have also been researching and reading on maiden speeches to give myself a better understanding of what’s expected.  If there are any final issues or concerns I have that cannot be answered by research and weekly readings then I will approach my internal lecturer for further queries.

Ames, K 2016, Study Guide Lesson 4 – Performance, COMM 12033, CQUniveristy, Rockhampton, 06 May.

Ames, K 2016, Study Guide Lesson 7 – Genres of speech, COMM 12033, CQUniveristy, Rockhampton, 06 May.

BBC. (2010). Charlie Brooker’s How to Report the News – Newswipe – BBC Four. [Online Video]. 5 February 2010. Available from: [Accessed: 28 April 2016].

Russell, L., 2009. Kinesthetic Learning for Adolescents.

VideoJug. (2012). How To Have A Deep Voice. [Online Video]. 1 May 2012. Available from: [Accessed: 11 May 2016].



Week Nine

Drafted Script


Audio Visual
Narrator: In today’s news Member for Rockhampton, NAME has recently given their first speech to parliament.

NAME reportedly took to the stage to express their concerns towards Rockhampton’s hospitals.


This is Win local news, I’m Bonnie Cheung.


Narrator: Elderly members of the community may be delighted to find their next trip to the hospital might be just be a whole lot easier. Rockhampton’s newest MP NAME took to their new role to insist that Rockhamton’s Mater hospital finally have some parking.

NAME goes on to state the risks that this concern imposes.


Narrator:  NAME then demanded that the parliament do not open up anymore services without providing the additional parking. VO – FOOTAGE OF HOPSITAL CARPARKS
NAME: “You can’t and I repeat you cannot keep opening up hospitals, opening up wards, opening up departments or adding services without the equivalent parking to go with it.”


Narrator: NAME then went on to inform the house of the need for more specialists at Rockhamptons public hospital. They strongly insisted that to rule out patients waiting, specialists need to be living in town.



NAME builds up her argument opposing that the force to wait can kill lives.


DOCTOR (NAME): discussing that patients are waiting and why we need specialists now


NAME: “Whether it’s a fortnight or monthly basis that can be your brother, your sister, your mother, your father, your sons and your daughters forced to wait. Delayed action results in early death.” GRAB

Dry Run Recording

Firstly my recording is approximately one page and goes for about 1.20 seconds. It is suggested that the selected news story go for about approximately two minutes. From drafting and reading this exercise it has become evident to myself that writing about two pages of script should fulfill two minutes or maybe a little more. Secondly I feel as there are some good points where certain words and areas are pronounced clearly and sound some what like a news reader. However please note I only said some good points. There are a couple of areas I feel I need to work on. I need to work harder at making my words sound clearer. I also need to work harder at maintain and finding a style of news writing rather than sounding like I’m just reading. I also feel that at times my voice can be a little high pitched when pronouncing certain words, therefore I will work on lowering my voice more . These problematic areas can be improved with more practice and constantly reading my script over and over. Ames (2016) points out that preparation of the presentation is only half of the material. It is important to rehearse and lessen the intensity of fear.


Ames, K 2016, Study Guide Lesson 10 – Delivering speech, COMM 12033, CQUniveristy, Rockhampton, 06 May.




Week Eight

Oral Presentation

Power point Reflection

Berkon and Wolvin (1998) point out that the chance of a speech’s success rate increases,  If a speech is well ordered. They go on to state that “Experienced speakers know (1) that if a presentation is to be effective, it must be understood and (2) that if a presentation is to be understood, it must be organized logically.” I found this activity very useful in gaining a better idea of how to tackle the required Maiden speech. In general all speeches contain an introduction body and conclusion. I used these elements to structure my speech and organize the way in which the speech will be conducted. Berkon and Wolvin (1998) discuss that using a “central idea” points out the purpose of the presentation and a specific statement of the main idea.

This is was an interesting point to read and so I incorporated this into my Maiden speech structure.  It made me reflect on what exactly was the point of Bill Byrnes speech? And so I included “what he hopes to achieve” as this is a necessary point of topic. I found from the weekly readings and breaking down the speech into a structure; further improved my knowledge on speech writing.Using headings to break down what I will discuss in detail provides an easier of tackling the speech. Notably also taking in the rule of thirds, as my power point structure uses four topics of issues to discuss. I have done this to provide myself with more choices and ideas and will choose the best ones to discuss in the final Maiden speech.

Chapter 13: Public Speaking – Structuring the Message in Berko R., Wolvin, A., & Wolvin, D. (eds.), 1998, Communication : a social and career focus, Houghton  Mifflin Company, Boston, pp. 326-353.

Week Seven

Features of a genre

The talk on the today show featuring Karl Stefanovic and Lisa Wilkinson, addressed the topic of melanoma in men. According to Tolson, (1991) he argues that the three main elements of a chat based program are wit and humour, personal and the transgression of underlies talk.

At times the discussion appeared quite controversial and unscripted as the chat in general came across as light-hearted banter. To my understanding although the hosts and the receiver were tackling the issue of cancer, the use of wit and humor assist to create a sense of community amongst the listeners. This is evident with the discussion of men growing beards and even women. The idea of men using their beards to create awareness for melanoma is topic that subverts from our cultural norm. Towards the end we are observant to Karl laughing in hysterics as Lisa makes a witty remark. Thus this further reinforces Tolsons arguments of wit, humor and personal. Lastly unscripted as the chat appeared, their chemistry as hosts works quite effectively on television.

Tolson, A 1991, ‘Televised chat and the synthetic personality’,in Broadcast Talk, ed P. Scannell, Sage Publications, London.

Piece to Camera practice

Video Link:

This activity was quite challenging, as it was found doing a PTC requires good memory, confidence and a lot practice, practice, practice. Chandler (2016) discusses that when the subject, actor and setting occupy roughly equal areas in the frame it is known as a mid shot. This auto visual leaves space for hand gestures to be seen. I had decided to do this as I felt it was important to challenge myself.  Brooker (2010) ‘how to report the news’ is very informative on hand gestures and camera angles. Notably he points out that journalists use hand gestures to interrupt every sentence. It wasn’t easy finding a way to balance talking and hand movement at the same time. However I felt it was good practice which I come out with learning alot.

BBC. (2010). Charlie Brooker’s How to Report the News – Newswipe – BBC Four. [Online Video]. 5 February 2010. Available from: [Accessed: 28 April 2016].

Daniel Chandle. 2016. The ‘Grammar’ of Television and Film. [ONLINE] Available at: [Accessed 28 April 2016].


From Text to Talk

Clayman aims to discuss what makes a question quotable and the impact these partake. A first key point Clayman discusses is that observations and accounts from valid established sources are gathered in large measure. Using the theory work of quoted questions in the required speech report if carried out correctly, will have major significance for what audience members may ultimately make of the views and policies that the speaker is attempting to express.

News writer’s language choices can have local documentary rather than exogenous ideological elements. these such choices are also analyzed and interpreted by audience members. The meaning of verbal, gestural, and other communicative displays are a well-established principle that relies upon the context in which they are used.

The structure of interactionally generated source quotations

Clayman confers the structure of interactionally generated source quotations.  Precise paraphrased statements from a variety of sources are regularly evident in Newspaper and television stories.  The way the speech is reported may not contain statements from a variety of sources but it will make use of precise paraphrased sentences. Clayman goes on to state that for incorporating interactionally generated statements into stories reporters have two options. The first the reporter may use and exclude single statement quotes  from continuing interaction in which the statement was first produced. However, there is also the choice of including aspects of the interactional context of source statements.

Clayman points out that Atkinson (1984) discusses that the speakers statement, reference to audience’s response, quotations from interviews and press conferences were found to have frequent coverage in newspaper and television. This can be used in the way the speech is reported by using an interviewee’s statement together with a question that provokes or follows it. Rather than twisting or taking statements out of context Clayman points out. The speech may be reported in a way to deliver a more complete picture of what the speaker said, by recalling the context of the talk.

Conversation analysis

Clayman uses conversation analysis as a significant resource for analyzing quotation sentences. The following is some key point examples of conversation analysis Clayman uses to break down the structure of quotation sentences in newspaper accounts of reporter-source interaction.

Many of these quotation sequences display the source to be in some way resisting a line of questioning.  This can be declining to answer the questions, evading what is seeks or has been written in a way that shows the speaker rejecting proposes. Incorporating the use quotation sentences that have been resisted into the way the speech will be reported; will reflect the type of reporter and the tough questions and their ability to pursue pervasive answers.

Some functions of quoted questions

  • Interviews and press conferences are based around largely of questions and answers assigned to reporters and the reporters sources, as a form of talk. Newspaper accounts Clayman discusses usually quote answers or their components without the question that provokes it.
  • What is being said or meant by the source can be simplified as summarizing or paraphrasing statements.  An initial paraphrase serves to clarify the precise quotation that follows.
  • Paraphrased questions serves a variety of more specialized communicative functions that can be difficult to perform. To outline adjoining statements as actions formed in interaction with others, questions are distinctive in their power.
  • A basic job questions perform is to display an external motivation for the sources statement. Carrying this out alters the extent to which a statement can be heard to reflect the sources own interests and motivations.
  • When the source is pushed to admit contrary to his or her preferences the statement is portrayed as having been resisted. This can result in a three-part statement (statement + question + answer)
  • Quoted questions make statements recognizable as answers, which they are provoked rather than volunteered. Incorporating the preceding question in news writing allows the option of noting whether the source replied quickly or after some hesitation.
  • Clayman points out the terms preferred and dis preferred, as they differentiate in manner. Examples of this are invitation sequences, acceptances that are generally produced in a preferred format. Therefore when an acceptance is delayed it appears and conveys the impression that the party would rather decline.
  • When a questions is quoted in newspapers, the following statement becomes identified as an answer but as an answer that confirms or rejects a reporters proposal, this is known as a confirmatory response.
  • A confirmed interrogative proposal is supportive in its nature and its preservation in print purposes to display the friendliness of the encounter.
  • Clayman confers that non-answer in news writing shows various ways that a source did not answer. This method generally involves some reference to the following question. A news writer may use the words “refused” or “declined”.
  • Rather than state that no answer was given, writer may follow the question with a quote of whatever response it did receive.
  • Using a non verbal action such as a smile can be identified as a non answer. Preceding a question it is important a non answering gesture of a smile is made visible.
  • It can be indicated by news writers that less than a complete answer was evident, as the source provided some information. For example the speaker’s least answer is quoited after which it is noted “he refused to amplify”
Clayman, S 1990, ‘From talk to text: newspaper accounts of reporter-source interactions’, Media Culture & Society, vol. 12

Week Six


Locker and Kaczmarek (2011) developed the PAIBOC questions.  The PAIBOC approach has been used to identify the ‘purpose’ of the assignment. By then once the purpose is clear, the second question becomes who the ‘audience’ is and then what ‘information’ must be sent across. What ‘Benefits’ will support your position and the fourth question while identifying the ‘objections’ and what context the speech will be written.

Purpose: what is the purpose of your speech/talk?

The purpose of the speech is the opportunity for a new member to outline to the parliament what the electorate hopes to achieve. The speech will discuss Bill Byrne in terms of the Rockhampton electorate and the local issues surrounding that area. The purpose of the speech will also discuss and reinforce the key messages the electorate clearly wants to impart to the wider parliamentary community.

Audience: who is your audience?

The electoral district of Rockhampton is based on the city south of the Fitzroy River as well as most parts of the city north of the River. The audience will be the locals based in these areas, as well as the parliament. According to Queensland labor (2015) The suburbs surrounding the Rockhampton electorate are Rockhampton City, Rockhampton West, and Grace mere ultimately these are also considered as an audience. Another audience to consider is different types of media outlets, such as local outlets like television and newspaper. Another audience will be Hansdard, which the Parliament of Australia (2016) refer to as a place where all debates are shortly published after the chamber/committee proceedings have included.

Information: what information is required that is in alignment with the purpose and Audience?

The information that will be required is the issues surrounding the electoral district. From substantial research thee could be Unemployment, flooding, Roads, hospital parking and specialists, crime and education.  The speech will only discuss three of these selected and generally touch on this issues but propose a solution.

Benefits: how can you write/speak in such a way that the audience hears ‘what’s in it for them’ or gets something out of it.

The speech will be written to persuade the audience to truly believe that these issues have the potential to create a brighter future. That the electorate respects and cares about the people and communities greater needs to create a promising future.

Objections: what objections might you expect your listeners to have? This will influence what is emphasized/de-emphasised, or addressed, in your speech/talk.

The Opposition may object to political views held by the speaker.

Context: what is the context in which you are giving your speech/talk? Issues such as staff morale, economic climate, social climate, will have an influence on how you are  received.

The speech will be well received by the supporters of Rockhampton, as it will discuss key issues in this area. The opposition may not be as receiving, as these are not issues that affect them. However if i were to touch in my speech that certain issues in Rockhampton affect Queensland as whole . This shows the compassion and devotion as a state politician Bill Byrne has not only to his electorate but his intentions for the greater good.

Locker Kitty and Kaczmarek Stephen (2011): Business communication – Building Critical Skills, McGraw- Hill Irwin.

Queenslandlabour. 2015. Bill Byrne MP for Rockhampton. [ONLINE] Available at: [Accessed 26 April 2016].


Parliment Of Australia. 2016. Hansard. [ONLINE] Available at: [Accessed 11 May 2016].

Formal and Impromptu speech


Week Five

Notice talk

How do you greet people (in detail – what exactly do you say)?

Before I even greet someone, I am always subtly observing them from head to toe. Just from observing their physical identity I can make assumptions “what” it is they’ve been doing. If they were wearing some type of uniform, this would help to kick start a conversation, before I am even able to speak to them. For example, “You’ve been working today, how was it?” or “looks like you did a bit of shopping, what did you buy?” Generally upon greeting people this is something i will always do.

Another way I may greet people at “first” is with a smile or a wave. This shows that I have taken recognition towards them and am interested in speaking to them. I will then take a further acknowledgement towards them by starting a broad conversation asking how their day was, or what they’ve been up to lately. Using this as a subtle gateway ultimately I am  then able to start a more personal conversation. However my transition of talk can change based on whether I am greeting a friend, my boss or someone whom I don’t know well. Ames (2016) discusses that it is imperative when being aware of the implication imposed within institutional context that the person can distinguish and transition this type of talk.

How do you sign off or say goodbye (again, in detail)?

If I am saying goodbye to someone, I don’t necessarily say “Goodbye”. The language I use consists of phrases such as “Catchya later”, “Cya” or “I’m Off!” Usually before or after saying this I would say something that reinforces the conversation just had, wishing the person well. For example, “Well good luck in your interview tomorrow, I’m off!” In other times I would explain that it was great to catch up but I do need go we propose that we should hang out  sometime. Upon saying goodbye to someone I would sign of with either a slight wave or a hug, depending on how close the person is to me.

How do you deal with uncomfortable moments (silence, for example)?

In uncomfortable situations I always use the phrase “Sorry I’m in a hurry, will talk to you later”. This allows for myself to avoid uncomfortable situations or leave an uncomfortable conversation earlier than planned. Or perhaps I would use a little humour to ease uncomfortable moment.

Ames, K 2016, Study Guide Lesson 5 – Institutional talk, COMM 12033, CQUniveristy, Rockhampton, 30 March.

Considering institutional talk in detail

Entertainment Interview: Johny Depp

  News Interview: Bill Shorten


How was the interviewee introduced?

Kimmel introduces Johny for his recent film Black Mass. His introduction builds up a sort of tension engaging the audience by the words he speaks. He opens the interview with the statement “Please welcome the real life mobster James Whitey Bulger”.

The introduction in the second clip is quite the opposite of this. It appears that the discussion of news holds much more importance than the interviewee himself. This is evident through the opening statement Skyline news reveals by discussing the issue of interest rates and then introducing the treasurer, Bill Shorten.

What types of questions were asked?

In Depp’s entertainment interview, Kimmel is very informal about the questions he opposes. Before Kimmel asks Johny about the origins of his last name, he opens this question with a very subtle statement. “I was thinking about this today and I don’t know why this popped in my head, but I’ve never heard of anyone else with the last name Depp”. Using this as a gateway Kimmel jumps onto the topic of Depp’s wife. He inquires into why she did not change her last name to Depp. Avoiding Conflict he then adds humor to the question stating “Because she would be Amber Depper right? And it sounds too much like shepper.”This appears as very light-banter and as Ames (2016) confers that at times talk on these types of shows appears conversational and unscripted.

In the news interview featuring Bill Shorten, the questions opposed are highly demanding and up front. In comparison to Depp’s interview that is quite relaxed and less demanding, Sky line news throws tough question after question. This is a much formal interview and therefore the questions remain formal. According to Prezi (2014) Formal speech and writing does not use slang or contractions. Therefore the questions imposed in comparison to Depps interview do not use slang or shortened words. The following is an example

These are just some of the questions Shorten is asked:

  • All the four big banks silent at the same time, it looks suspicious doesn’t it?
  • Do you think it’s a form of price signaling and if it is the governments tough new legislation on anti competitive behavior will it have some teeth on this front?
  • The fact is during the financial crisis tax payers did help sure up the banks didn’t they and now their making enormous profits. Is that message being conveyed by the banks to the government?
  • This could end up being counter productive couldn’t it, if they don’t pass on any of the rate cut?

How was the potential for conflict managed (if any)? Was humor evident, and how?

The conflict in Depp’s interview discussed his recent run in with Australia Laws; illegally bring his dogs into the country. This conflict was managed through the use of humor as Kimmel and Depp both express their amusement of the situation. Kimmel opposes the question of whether or not they smuggled their dogs into the country. He then goes to express his amusement saying “there might have been other things smuggled”. This humorous remark leaves the audience and Kimmel laughing in hysterics. Although this was a serious legal issue, the entertainment interview delivers this as a light fluffy less serious topic.

It appears that although the presenters were opposing quite conflicting questions, Shorten avoids this confliction by keeping himself composed and formal. There were no humorous remarks evident as the interview kept to a serious discussion. Shorten is quick to answer and speaks with utter most confidence. Prezi (2016) refers to formal speech as an interview. Speaking clearly and confidentiality remembering that the interviewer is
not there to be your friend so do not talk to them like one.

How did the interview conclude?

Depp’s interviews concluded on good terms leaving the audience to feel good. Kimmel finishes of with a bit of humor, then going on to thanking Depp. The Interview with Shorten concluded just as it had began, formal, stern and upfront.

What were the differences, if any, between the types of interview

According to Prior (2005) In a high-choice environment, politics constantly competes with entertainment. Priors information is quite interesting considering the major differences between these two genres of interviews, such as hard news verse soft news or social talk verse formal talk. The entertainment interview appeared as the interviewee understood the soft nature of the discussion and the type of questions asked. In comparison to the news interview, particular types of questions  were used to obtain the interviewee to answer.

Ames, K 2016, Study Guide Lesson 7 – Genres of Speech, COMM 12033, CQUniveristy, Rockhampton, 30 March.

Prior, M., 2005. News vs. entertainment: How increasing media choice widens gaps in political knowledge and turnout. American Journal of Political Science, 49(3), pp.577-592

Richard Kirk. 2014. Formal speech and good interview techniques. [ONLINE] Available at: [Accessed 11 May 2016].


Reading course online profile

Interaction en Masse: Audiences and Speeches identifies numerous key points that emerge from the research of speech writing and performance. These key points can help to increase the potential and effectiveness of writing and performing a professional speech.

The first key point Heritage and Clayman discuss is that political speeches are not an ordinary conversation, from doctor-patient interaction, or even from presidential press conferences. This is a main factor to keep in mind when beginning to write the speech.  Another point to incorporate when performing the speech is to keep eye contact with audience members as this is essential to public speaking. Heritage and Clayman argue that a substantial amount of research has suggested this.

In order to create applause, this is structured by the sentence that will lead up to it. This is crucial observation that was discussed. In the speech that is required to be written it is important that when performing it, the audience is given additional time to anticipate and be prepared to respond. The first advantage of doing this is expressive. Meaning the audience members can show their support for what the speaker is saying. Second, there are the helpful benefits of making the recipient appear popular to others. Therefore the speech topic is better to be one the audience and can side on and express their opinion whilst feeling they are in agreement with others. Heritage and Clayman report that  “Atkinson (1984) found a considerable body of evidence that responding in isolation is costly and undesirable”.

There are few main points discussed that can be incorporated into the speech; these are the formats for Inviting Applause.


Negative form of contrast is always placed first, allowing the speaker almost a second of stillness to elapse before moving on to the positive side.  Incorporating this into the speech gives the audience bonus time to gear up for a reaction whilst they are expecting other audience members to be doing the same. Contrast is the most common and diverse weapon in the speaker’s armory, these are the types:

Contradictions: “not this but that” Advice is judged by results, not by intentions. (Cicero) The house we hope to build is not for my generation but for yours. (Ronald Reagan)

Comparisons: “more this than that” I count him braver who overcomes his desires than him who overcomes his enemies. (Aristotle) The man who reads nothing at all is better educated than the man who reads nothing but newspapers. (Thomas Jefferson)

Opposites: “black or white” Glory is fleeting, but obscurity is forever. (Napoleon) Injustice anywhere is a threat to justice everywhere. (Martin Luther King, Jr)

Phrase reversals:  Ask not what your country can do for you; ask what you can do for your country. (John F. Kennedy) We didn’t land on Plymouth Rock, Plymouth Rock landed on us. (Malcolm X)


Heritage and Clayman point out that lists create a kind of emphasis that is appropriate for permitting audiences to react. Using a list in the speech could prompt audience response, if there is a brief delay before voicing the final item.

Types of list

Three identical words: There are three things that make for a successful speech: first delivery, second delivery and third delivery (Cicero) I shall fight, fight and fight again to save the party I love (Hugh Gaitskell)

Three different words: Veni, vidi, vici [I came, I saw, I conquered] (Julius Caesar) No way, no how, no McCain (Hillary Clinton)

Three phrases: Government of the people, by the people, for the people (Abraham Lincoln) I stand before you today the representative of a family in grief, in a country in mourning before a world in shock. (Lord Spencer, funeral oration for Princess Diana)

 Three sentences: Dogs look up to us. Cats look down on us. Pigs treat us as equals. (Winston Churchill)

Puzzle Solution

In this format of speech, Heritage and Clayman point out that to provoke the attention of the audience the speaker can do so by initially establishing a problem or puzzle. Integrating this theory in the required speech would mean delivering the point as a solution to the puzzle.


Heritage and Clayman report that “Heritage and Greatbatch (1986) found that combinations accounted for approximately 10 percent of all applause events in the British party conventions they studied, and were up to five times more likely to be associated with applause than unformatted political claims.”

Contrasts, lists, and puzzle-solutions can be combined in many combinations order to create an effective speech.  From reading this text, it is quite beneficial the theory work behind creating contrast, lists and puzzle solutions. The examples that Heritage and Clayman use are very appropriate and correctly demonstrate how these three formats of applause can be effectively used in writing the speech that is required.

Chapter 18: Interaction en Masse: Audiences and Speeches in Heritage, J and Clayman, S 2010 Talk in Action: Interactions, Identities, and Institutions, Wiley- Blackwell, West Sussex, pp. 263-287.

Week Four

Recording News Script


News Recording Reflection 

In comparison of news reading one to news reading two, there is a significant difference in terms of sound. Although there is still more room for improvement, week four’s recording sounds more polished.  According to an article by Neil, Worrall, Day and Hickson (2003) professional newsreaders should be able to speak a fundamental frequency, a faster rate of speech, fewer pronunciation errors, vocal quality, emphasis, continuity, phrasing, and have a style of news reading.

The main technique used in this speech was performance. Changing the way the script was spoken in order to sound more professional. As the reader I was able to turn my performance voice on and off.  In doing this, it provided an easier gateway to finding a style of news reading. Using a performance voice also encompassed using the technique of emphasis. This practice made what seemed like a challenging task much feel much more achievable. A prime example of using performance voice is Ted Williams, a homeless man who is able to transform his voice into sounding like a professional radio presenter. Towards the end of the video we are revealed to his regular voice, in which is naturally quite deep and refined. It is remarkable to observe how he uses this to alter his voice to a performance level.

To produce fewer pronunciation errors, the techniques suggested in the weeks reading such as articulation and breathing were used. The technique of articulation consisted of using the tongue, mouth and lips in order to produce a clear and distinctive sound from other sounds. To speak clear this also ensured that the right posture was used. Through elevated shoulders and a straight back, this allowed the words to be heard clearly. In a module by Ames (2016) it is discussed that projection and resonance are two key aspects that are easily affected, when it comes to breathing and speech. To speak at a continuous pace as well using vocal quality, it was important that as the speaker, breathing was controlled.

From this task it was learnt that In order to present news in a professional manner there are a lot of physical and emotional aspects to remember. There is still room for improvement with pronunciation errors and high pitched tones that are evident at times. I need to work on sounding less like I’m just reading and perform with a more smooth and deeper tone.

Ames, K 2016, Study Guide Lesson 4 – Performance, COMM 12033, CQUniveristy, Rockhampton, 30 March.

Neil, E., Worrall, L. E., Day, A. and Hickson, L. M. H. (2003) Voice and speech characteristics and vocal hygiene in novice and professional voice broadcast journalists. Advances in Speech-Language Pathology, 5 1: 1-14.

RT. (2011). ‘Golden Voice’ homeless man finds job, home after viral video success. [Online Video]. 6 January 2011. Available from: [Accessed: 28 April 2016].

In a World (2013) Review

Competing with her father and his main rival, vocal coach Carol competes for the voice-over trailer for a high budget movie. In a world reflects the stereotypical gender roles we view of male and female voice over’s. In a male dominated industry , this is  challenged when Carol becomes the first female voice over to pronounce the words  “in a world”.

Carols voice is well trained and through the movie we are shown her versatility as she can adapt to any genre of trailer. It is interesting observing some of the techniques used towards achieving voice over. The movie effectively demonstrates the techniques that are used to alter the sound of voice. In one scene we are shown a lady with a cork in her mouth pronouncing vowels. In another we are shown the actors using warm water to gargle in their mouth. Carol used an interesting technique which incorporated her diet. Noticeably she would eat specific food to assist her voice. We are shown creatively how the actors can switch from their regular voice to a performance voice.

As we come to learn through the movie the use of voice and conversation crafts our identities. People view and hear movie trailers all the time through media. This shows the power of voice over and how it can transcend a generation. The power of voice can provide assistance for everyday life. The techniques displayed in the movie demonstrate how sound can be evolved to our own personal benefit.